To more effectively target complex diseases like cancer, diabetes and schizophrenia, we may need to rethink our strategies for drug development and the selection of molecular targets for pharmacological treatments. Here, we discuss the potential use of protein signaling networks as the targets for new therapeutic intervention. We argue that by targeting the architecture of aberrant signaling networks associated with cancer and other diseases new therapeutic strategies can be implemented. Transforming medicine into a network driven endeavour will require quantitative measurements of cell signaling processes; we will describe how this may be performed and combined with new algorithms to predict the trajectories taken by a cellular system either in time or through disease states. We term this approach, network medicine.